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  药店国别: 美国药房
产地国家: 美国
所属类别: 激素内分泌药物->肾上腺皮质激素及促肾上腺皮质激素类药物
处方药:处方药
包装规格: 0.75毫克/片 100片/瓶
计价单位:
  点击放大  
生产厂家英文名:
West-Ward Pharmaceuticals Corp.
该药品相关信息网址1:
www.drugs.com/cdi/decadron.html
该药品相关信息网址2:
www.rxlist.com/decadron-drug.htm
原产地英文商品名:
DEXAMETHASONE 0.75MG/TAB 100TABS/BOTTLE (Minimum order: 20)
原产地英文药品名:
DEXAMETHASONE
中文参考商品译名:
地塞米松 0.75毫克/片 100片/瓶 (最少订购量: 20)
中文参考药品译名:
地塞米松
原产地国家批准上市年份:
0000/00/00
英文适应病症1:
Anti-inflammatory
英文适应病症2:
Anti-allergy
英文适应病症3:
Anti-shock
英文适应病症4:
Pituitary - adrenal suppression
临床试验期:
完成
中文适应病症参考翻译1:
抗炎
中文适应病症参考翻译2:
抗过敏
中文适应病症参考翻译3:
抗休克
中文适应病症参考翻译4:
垂体-肾上腺抑制
药品信息:

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 详细处方信息以本药内容附件PDF文件(2018101018493515.PDF)的“原文Priscribing Information”为准
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 部分中文地塞米松处方资料(仅供参考)

药品名称
药物名称: 地塞米松
药物别名: 氟甲去氢氢化可的松、氟美松,DEXASONE,DECADRON,ORADEXONE,HEXADROL
英文名称: Dexamethasone

规格   
醋酸地塞米松片:每片0.5mg, 0.75mg, 2mg, 4mg。

药理毒理
肾上腺皮质激素类药,其抗炎、抗过敏、抗休克作用比泼尼松更显著,而对水钠潴留和促进排钾作用很轻,对垂体-肾上腺抑制作用较强。
1.抗炎作用:本产品可减轻和防止组织对炎症的反应,从而减轻炎症的表现。激素抑制炎症细胞,包括巨噬细胞和白细胞在炎症部位的集聚,并抑制吞噬作用、溶酶体酶的释放以及炎症化学中介物的合成和释放。可以减轻和防止组织对炎症的反应,从而减轻炎症的表现。
2. 免疫抑制作用:包括防止或抑制细胞介导的免疫反应,延迟性的过敏反应,减少T淋巴细胞、单核细胞、嗜酸性细胞的数目,降低免疫球蛋白与细胞表面受体的结合能力,并抑制白介素的合成与释放,从而降低T淋巴细胞向淋巴母细胞转化,并减轻原发免疫反应的扩展。可降低免疫复合物通过基底膜,并能减少补体成分及免疫球蛋白的浓度。

药代动力学
本品极易自消化道吸收,其血浆T1/2为190分钟,组织T1/2为3日。血浆蛋白结合率较其他皮质激素类药物为低。

适应症
本品的抗炎作用及控制皮肤过敏的作用比没尼松更显著,而对水钠潴留和促进排钾作用较轻微,对垂体-肾上腺皮质的抑制作用较强。血浆蛋白结合率低,生物t1/2约190分钟,组织t1/2约为3日。肌注地塞米松磷酸钠或醋酸地塞米松,分别于1或8小时达血浆高峰浓度。应用同泼尼松。

用法用量
口服,1日0.75~6mg,分2~4次服用。维持剂量1日0.5~0.75mg。肌注(醋酸地塞米松注射液),1次8~16mg,间隔2~3周1次。静滴(地塞米松磷酸钠注射液),每次2~20mg,或遵医嘱。
 
不良反应
本品较大剂量易引起糖尿病、消化道溃疡和类柯兴综合征症状,对下丘脑 -垂体-肾上腺轴抑制作用较强。并发感染为主要的不良反应。

禁忌症
对本品及肾上腺皮质激素类药物有过敏史患者禁用。高血压、血栓症、胃与十二指肠溃疡、精神病、电解质代谢异常、心肌梗塞、内脏手术、青光眼等患者一般不宜使用。特殊情况下权衡利弊使用,但应注意病情恶化的可能。

注意事项
(1)较大量服用,易引起糖尿及类柯兴综合征。
(2)长期服用,较易引起精神症状及精神病,有癔病史及精神病史者最好不用。
(3)溃疡病、血栓性静脉炎、活动性肺结核、肠吻合手术后病人忌用或慎用。

妊娠哺乳期妇女用药
妊娠期妇女使用可增加胎盘功能不全、新生儿体重减少或死胎的发生率,动物试验有致畸作用,应权衡利弊使用。乳母接受大剂量给药,则不应哺乳,防止药物经乳汁排泄,造成婴儿生长抑制、肾上腺功能抑制等不良反应。

儿童用药
小儿如使用肾上腺皮质激素,须十分慎重,用激素可抑制患儿的生长和发育,如确有必要长期使用时,应使用短效或中效制剂,避免使用长效地塞米松制剂。并观察颅内压的变化。
 
老年患者用药
易产生高血压,老年患者尤其是更年期后的女性使用易发生骨质疏松。

药物相互作用
1. 与巴比妥类、苯妥因、利福平同服,本品代谢促进作用减弱。
2. 与水杨酸类药合用,增加其毒性。
3. 可减弱抗凝血剂、口服降糖药作用,应调整剂量。
4. 与利尿剂(保钾利尿剂除外)合用可引起低血钾症,应注意用量。

GENERIC NAME: dexamethasone oral

BRAND NAME: Decadron, DexPak

DRUG CLASS AND MECHANISM: Dexamethasone is a synthetic (man-made) corticosteroid. Corticosteroids are naturally-occurring chemicals produced by the adrenal glands located above the kidneys. Corticosteroids affect the function of many cells within the body and suppress the immune system. Corticosteroids also block inflammation and are used in a wide variety of inflammatory diseases affecting many organs.

PRESCRIPTION: Yes

GENERIC AVAILABLE: Yes

PREPARATIONS: Tablets: 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.5, 2, 4, and 6 mg. Elixir: 0.5 mg /5 mL. Solution: 0.5, 1 mg/5 ml

STORAGE: Dexamethasone should be stored at 68-77 F (20-25 C) and not frozen.

PRESCRIBED FOR: Dexamethasone is used for reducing inflammation in many conditions. Some examples include rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus, acute gouty arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, ulcerative colitis, and Crohn's disease. Severe allergic conditions that fail to respond to other treatments also may respond to dexamethasone. Examples include bronchial asthma, allergic rhinitis, drug-induced dermatitis, and contact and atopic dermatitis. Chronic skin conditions treated with dexamethasone include dermatitis herpetiformis, pemphigus, severe psoriasis and severe seborrheic dermatitis. Chronic allergic and inflammatory conditions of the uvea, iris, conjunctiva and optic nerves of the eyes also are treated with dexamethasone.

Dexamethasone is used in the treatment of cancers of the white blood cells (leukemias), and lymph gland cancers (lymphomas). Blood diseases involving destruction by the body's own immune system of platelets (idiopathic thrombocytopenia purpura), and red blood cells (autoimmune hemolytic anemia) also are treated with dexamethasone. Other miscellaneous conditions treated with dexamethasone include thyroiditis and sarcoidosis. Finally, dexamethasone is used as replacement therapy in patients whose adrenal glands are unable to produce sufficient amounts of corticosteroids.

DOSING: Dosage requirements of corticosteroids vary greatly among individuals and the diseases being treated. In general, the lowest possible effective dose is used. The initial oral dose is 0.75 to 9 mg daily depending on the disease. The initial dose should be adjusted based on response. Corticosteroids given in multiple doses throughout the day are more effective but also are more toxic as compared with the same total daily dose given once daily, or every other day.

DRUG INTERACTIONS: Corticosteroids may increase or decrease the effect of blood thinners, for example, warfarin (Coumadin). Blood clotting should be monitored and the dose of blood thinner adjusted in order to achieve the desired level of blood thinning when patients receiving blood thinners are begun on corticosteroids, including dexamethasone.

Phenobarbital, ephedrine, phenytoin (Dilantin), and rifampin (Rifadin, Rimactane) may increase the breakdown of corticosteroids by the liver, resulting in lower blood levels and reduced effects. Therefore, the dose of corticosteroid may need to be increased if treatment with any of these agents is begun.

PREGNANCY: Dexamethasone has not been adequately evaluated in pregnant women.

NURSING MOTHERS: Dexamethasone has not been adequately evaluated in nursing mothers. Corticosteroids appear in breast milk and may cause side effects in infants.

SIDE EFFECTS: Side effects of dexamethasone depend on the dose, the duration and the frequency of administration. Short courses of dexamethasone usually are well tolerated with few and mild side effects. Long term, high dose dexamethasone usually will produce predictable and potentially serious side effects. Whenever possible, the lowest effective dose of dexamethasone should be used for the shortest possible length of time to minimize side effects. Alternate day dosing also can help reduce side effects.

Side effects of dexamethasone and other corticosteroids range from mild annoyances to serious irreversible damage. Side effects include fluid retention, weight gain, high blood pressure, loss of potassium, headache, muscle weakness, puffiness of and hair growth on the face, thinning and easy bruising of skin, glaucoma, cataracts, peptic ulceration, worsening of diabetes, irregular menses, growth retardation in children, convulsions, and psychic disturbances. Psychic disturbances include depression, euphoria, insomnia, mood swings, personality changes, and even psychotic behavior.

Prolonged use of dexamethasone can depress the ability of body's adrenal glands to produce corticosteroids. Abruptly stopping dexamethasone in these individuals can cause symptoms of corticosteroid insufficiency, with accompanying nausea, vomiting, and even shock. Therefore, withdrawal of dexamethasone usually is accomplished by gradually reducing the dose. Gradually tapering dexamethasone not only minimizes the symptoms of corticosteroid insufficiency, but also reduces the risk of an abrupt flare of the disease under treatment.

Dexamethasone and other corticosteroids can mask signs of infection and impair the body's natural immune response that is important in fighting infection. Patients on corticosteroids are more susceptible to infections and can develop more serious infections than individuals not receiving corticosteroids. For example, chickenpox and measles viruses can produce serious and even fatal illnesses in patients on high doses of dexamethasone. Live virus vaccines, such as smallpox vaccine, should be avoided in patients taking high doses of dexamethasone, since even vaccine viruses may cause disease in these patients. Some infectious organisms, such as tuberculosis (TB) and malaria, can remain dormant in a patient for years. Dexamethasone and other corticosteroids can reactivate dormant infections. Patients with dormant tuberculosis may require treatment of the TB while undergoing corticosteroid treatment.

By interfering with the patient's immune response, dexamethasone can impede the effectiveness of vaccinations. Dexamethasone can also interfere with the tuberculin (TB) skin test and cause falsely negative results in patients with dormant tuberculosis infection.

Dexamethasone impairs calcium absorption and new bone formation. Patients on prolonged treatment with dexamethasone and other corticosteroids can develop osteoporosis and an increased risk of bone fractures. Supplemental calcium and vitamin D are encouraged to slow this process of bone thinning. It has been demonstrated in some groups of patients treated with steroids that the loss of bone may be prevented by treatment with biphosphonate drugs, for example, alendronate (Fosamax).

In rare individuals, destruction of large joints can occur while undergoing treatment with dexamethasone or other corticosteroids. These patients experience severe pain in the involved joints, and can require joint replacements. The reason behind such destruction is not clear.

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 详细处方信息以本药内容附件PDF文件(2018101018493515.PDF)的“原文Priscribing Information”为准
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更新日期: 2018-10-10
附件:
2018101018493515.pdf    



 
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