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  药店国别: 爱尔兰药房
产地国家: 爱尔兰
所属类别: 抗癌药物->化疗药物
处方药:处方药
包装规格: 0.25毫克/5毫升/安培瓶
计价单位: 安培瓶
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生产厂家中文参考译名:
Helsinn, Onko
生产厂家英文名:
Helsinn, Onko
该药品相关信息网址1:
http://www.aloxi.net/
该药品相关信息网址2:
http://www.drugs.com/aloxi.html
该药品相关信息网址3:
http://www.rxlist.com/aloxi-drug.htm
原产地英文商品名:
ALOXI 0.25MG/5ML/AMP VIAL
原产地英文药品名:
PALONOSETRON HCL
原产地英文化合物名称:
(3aS)-2-(3S)-1-Azabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-3-yl-2,3,3a,4,5,6-hexahydro-1H-benz[de]isoquinolin-1-one monohydrochloride
中文参考商品译名:
ALOXI 0.25毫克/5毫升/安培瓶
中文参考药品译名:
盐酸帕洛诺司琼
中文参考化合物名称:
(3aS)-2-(S)-1-氮杂双环[2,2,2]辛-3-基]-2,3,3a,4,5,6-六氢化-1-氧-1-苯[反]异喹啉盐酸盐
原产地国家批准上市年份:
2003/07/25
英文适应病症1:
CINV
英文适应病症2:
Prevention of postoperative vomiting
临床试验期:
完成
中文适应病症参考翻译1:
化疗引起的恶心和呕吐
中文适应病症参考翻译2:
预防术后呕吐
药品信息:

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 详细处方信息以本药内容附件PDF文件(201151518482639.pdf)的“原文Priscribing Information”为准
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部分中文帕洛诺司琼处方资料(仅供参考)

英文药名: Aloxi (Palonosetron)

中文药名: 盐酸帕洛诺司琼注射剂

药品说明
癌症化疗几乎都会出现不同程度的恶心和呕吐,如顺铂治疗的发生率就超过99%。化疗引起的恶心和呕吐(CINV)占据了病人畏惧化疗的前三种因素之一。在所有药物治疗手段中,皮质类固醇和5-HT3受体拮抗剂应用最广泛。现有 5-HT3受体拮抗剂(如昂丹司琼,格拉司琼,多拉司琼)在抗呕吐、有效性和耐受性方面认为是类似的。它们对于CINV急性期有效,但延迟期效果不佳,对于后一种情况,往往单用皮质类固醇或合用其他制剂。
帕洛诺司琼是由Helsinn Healthcare公司研制的选择性5-羟色胺3受体拮抗剂(5-HT3)。盐酸帕洛诺司琼(Palonosetron)注射剂以商品名Aloxi于2003年7月由美国FDA批准,用于预防在实施中度或重度致呕吐性化疗方案时所引起的急性和迟发性呕吐。
帕洛诺司琼对5-HT3受体有高选择性拮抗作用,可阻断呕吐反射中枢外周神经厚的突触前5HT3受体的兴奋,并且直接影响中枢神经系统内5HT3受体转递的迷走神经传入后区的作用,阻断肠道中迷走神经末梢,阻止信号传递到5-HT3受体触发区,减少呕吐和恶心的发生率。

化学成分
帕洛诺司琼盐酸盐是一种介于白色及掺有少量灰黄色的白色之间的晶状粉末。易溶于水,也能溶于丙二醇,微溶于乙醇和2-丙醇。Aloxi注射液是一种无菌,清澈,无色,非高温合成,等渗的用于静脉的药物。每5ml的Aloxi注射瓶内含有0.25mg帕洛诺司琼。注射液的pH值在4.5~5.5之间。
化学名:(3aS)-2-(S)-1-氮杂双环[2,2,2]辛-3-基]-2,3,3a,4,5,6-六氢化-1-氧-1-苯[反]异喹啉盐酸盐;(3aS)-2-(3S)-1-Azabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-3-yl-2,3,3a,4,5,6-hexahydro-1H-benz[de]isoquinolin-1-one monohydrochloride
分子式: C19H24N2O.HCl

药效学特征
帕洛诺司琼是一个高选择性,竞争性二代5-HT3受体高亲和性药物。在放射配体结合试验中,使用NG108-15细胞中[3H]-quizapine作为放射配体,帕洛诺司琼替换结合NG-108-15细胞的5HT3受体,抑制常数的负对数(Pki)为10.4,28个其他受体包括其他5-羟色胺亚型的亲和力都较低(Pki<6.0)。帕洛诺司琼5-HT3受体亲和性(Pki>10)高于其他5-HT3受体拮抗剂100倍(格拉司琼为8.91,曲匹司琼为8.81,昂丹司琼为8.39,多拉司琼是7.6)。胃肠外应用帕洛诺司琼可剂量依赖性的抑制2-甲基-5-羟色胺诱导的与大鼠 bezold-Jarisch反射有关的心动过缓。帕洛诺司琼在抑制bezold-Jarisch反射方面比格拉司琼效力强15倍,比昂丹司琼强55倍,并且作用时间长。口服或静注帕洛诺司琼可剂量依赖性的抑制动物模型中,顺铂、达卡巴嗪、放线菌素或氮芥引起的呕吐,效力强于昂丹司琼或格拉司琼2~93倍。在狗口服剂量范围1~100μg/kg内,4个灭吐灵催吐的试验中有3个实现完全抑制呕吐反应,全抑制所需剂量至少比昂丹司琼低10倍。而且,对于顺铂引起的呕吐,帕洛诺司琼(30μg/kg口服)作用持续时间为7h,同样有效剂量(300μg/kg口服)的昂丹司琼为4h。类似于昂丹司琼,帕洛诺司琼对于阿扑吗啡引起的呕吐无效果。麻醉狗静注帕洛诺司琼剂量达到1mg/kg对于血流动力学或ECG参数无明显改变。

药代动力学特征
癌症病人的静注帕洛诺司琼的参数与健康受试者类似。
*吸收和分布
帕洛诺司琼在健康受试者和癌症患者的药代动力学在1~90μg/kg范围内为线性,与剂量呈比例。对于癌症病人接受此范围内的单剂量静注帕洛诺司琼,平均最大血浆浓度(Cmax)为0.89~336ng/ml,AUC∞为13.8~957(ng・h)/ml。6个癌症病人在静注帕洛诺司琼3μg/kg(相当于70公斤体重的成人固定剂量0.25mg)后的平均Cmax和 AUC∞值为5.6ng/ml和35.8(ng・h)/ml。
帕洛诺司琼与血浆蛋白中等结合(62%)。10μg/kg单剂量静注后的分布体积约为8.3L/kg。
*代谢和排泄
约50%静注剂量的帕洛诺司琼在肝中通过多种途径代谢。两种主要的代谢产物N-氧化-帕洛诺司琼和6-(S)-羟基-帕洛诺司琼是无活性的5-HT3受体拮抗剂(<帕洛诺司琼活性的1%);体外试验中,帕洛诺司琼主要通过细胞色素P450(CYP)2D6酶,少数通过CYP3A和CYP1A2代谢。在应用单剂量帕洛诺司琼10μg/kg的144h之内,约80%的药物在尿中排除,其中半数为原型药(剂量的40%),代谢产物约占50%。帕洛诺司琼健康受试者的总体和肾清除率为160和66.5(ml・h)kg。帕洛诺司琼的慢清除速度导致了半衰期长达40h。由于半衰期长,在给药7日内无需再给药。明显长于其他药物(昂丹司琼4h;曲匹司琼7.3h;多拉司琼7.5h;格拉司琼8.9h)。

临床研究
帕洛诺司琼的剂量(0.25mg和0.75mg)是基于随机,双盲,剂量变化的试验结果。2个双盲试验(n=563和569)比较了帕洛诺司琼(0.25mg和0.75mg)与昂丹司琼32mg或多拉司琼100mg在抑制中度致吐剂包括氨甲喋呤>250mg/m2,环磷酰胺<1500mg/m2,阿霉素>25mg/m2,顺铂≤50mg/m2或任意剂量的卡铂造成的CINV。受试者使用帕洛诺司琼0.25mg或0.75mg在中度化疗后的急性期(0~24h)通常得到较高的全反应率;帕洛诺司琼0.25mg急性期的全反应率显著高于昂丹司琼32mg组,类似于多拉司琼100mg。帕洛诺司琼0.75mg组的全反应率类似于昂丹司琼32mg或多拉司琼100mg组;帕洛诺司琼抗中度化疗引起的恶心/呕吐的作用在延迟期(24~120h)也能保持(次要终点指标)。帕洛诺司琼0.25mg优于昂丹司琼32mg或多拉司琼100mg,差异有显著性。帕洛诺司琼0.75mg的全反应率类似于昂丹司琼32mg,明显高于多拉司琼100mg;在总体时间内(0~120h),帕洛诺司琼0.25mg的全反应率显著高于昂丹司琼32mg(69%比50%;P<0.001)或多拉司琼100mg(46%比34%;P=0.021);帕洛诺司琼0.75mg组的全反应率对比多拉司琼为59%比47%(P=0.012)。
总之,次要终点指标也显示帕洛诺司琼至少与昂丹司琼或多拉司琼效果一样。例如,虽然急性期全控制率无组间差别,但延迟期和总体时间内,帕洛诺司琼0.25mg或0.75mg比例(42%~67%)显著高于(所有的P≤0.03)对照(31%~50%)。急性,延迟和总体时间内,帕洛诺司琼0.25mg组的呕吐发生率明显少于昂丹司琼32mg(全部P≤0.05)或多拉司琼100mg(全部P<0.02)。在延迟期和总体时间内,帕洛诺司琼0.75mg组比多拉司琼100mg更有效(P<0.002)。
单剂量帕洛诺司琼(0.25mg或0.75mg)抗呕吐作用持续时间超过120h。Kaplan-Meier分析显示帕洛诺司琼0.25mg治疗失败的出现时间明显长于昂丹司琼32mg(P=0.0003)或多拉司琼100mg(P<0.002)。
另外,对于重度化疗,包括顺铂≥60mg/m2,或环磷酰胺>1500mg/m2来说,帕洛诺司琼也有抑制重度化疗引起的CINV作用。

耐受性
帕洛诺司琼单剂静注应用于化疗前,中度或重度化疗病人通常耐受性好。由于癌症病人并发症多,副反应发生率高,因此确定它们的诱因较困难。但多数副反应(84%)强度轻微,且/或与帕洛诺司琼治疗无关(>80%)。严重副反应发生率低(≤5%),帕洛诺司琼组和对照组类似。所有严重副反应评价为与试验无关。总结了治疗中病人出现的副反应,从高到低依次为头痛、便秘、腹泻、眩晕、乏力、腹痛、失眠。
总之,帕洛诺司琼的副反应在类型、频率、持续时间和强度上都类似于对照组。在研究者确认的至少可能与治疗有关的副反应中,头痛和便秘是最常见的。

讨论
在北美和(或)欧洲有4个选择性5-HT3受体拮抗剂用于抑制急性化疗引起的恶心和呕吐(CINV):多拉司琼、昂丹司琼、格拉司琼和曲匹司琼。虽然这些药物在5-HT3受体亲和性,选择性和代谢方面有一定差异,但这些差异还没有导致临床上有效性的不同。因此,根据目前研究,这些5-HT3受体拮抗剂在效果上是一致的,在同样剂量下可以互换使用,这点已是共识。
所有一代5-HT3受体拮抗剂显示对于急性CINV的有效性,单剂的急性反应率从50%~70%。对于延迟性CINV的效果没有充分显示,有一部分病人在中度或重度化疗后仍有恶心和呕吐。因此,有必要开发新型更有效抑制CINV的药物。
帕洛诺司琼是首个,且目前已批准唯一的可用于开始化疗和多疗程化疗的延迟性CINV的5-HT3受体拮抗剂。它也用于抑制中度或重度致吐剂引起的急性CINV。帕洛诺司琼近来已收录于国家综合性癌症网络系统抗呕吐指南中(美国综合癌症网络(NCCN)的临床指南广泛应用于癌症治疗领域,在业界享有很高声誉)。近日NCCN推举Aloxi(palonosetron,帕洛诺司琼)注射液作为首选药物,预防中度致吐性化疗(3、4级)引起的恶心、呕吐。同时,NCCN推荐Aloxi注射液每日1次给药,预防高度致吐性化疗(5级)引起的恶心、呕吐。在临床试验中,帕洛诺司琼0.25mg或0.75mg在抑制中度或重度化疗引起的CINV,和对照药类似或更有效,耐受性较好。
Aloxi (R)(帕洛诺司琼)自问世后,2004年全年销售额为1.593亿美元。经过18个月的推广,注射剂帕洛诺司琼已成为同类品种的领先者,是一个有相当发展前景的癌症化疗抗吐药物。

Aloxi (palonosetron)
Company: MGI Pharma, Helsinn Healthcare
Approval Status: Approved August 2003
Treatment for: Chemotherapy side effects
Areas: Gastroenterology; Oncology

General Information
Aloxi (palonosetron) is an injectable anti-vomiting and anti-nausea agent taken just chemotherapy treatments. Palonosetron belongs to a relatively new, but well-known, class of anti-emetics, the 5-HT3 receptor antagonists.

Aloxi is indicated for the prevention of acute or delayed nausea and vomiting associated with initial and repeat courses of moderately and highly emetogenic cancer chemotherapy.

The recommended dosage of Aloxi is 0.25 mg administered as a single dose approximately 30 minutes before the start of chemotherapy. In Europe, the Palonosetron trademark is licensed under the name Onicit. It will be marketed in Italy by Italfarmaco, a privately owned pharmaceutical company.

Clinical Results
FDA approval of Aloxi is based on three phase III clinical trials and one phase II study. Complete response rates, defined as no emetic episodes and no rescue medication, and other efficacy parameters were assessed through a total of 120 hours of treatment of chemotherapy and palonosetron injection.

Two-phase III trials tested the efficacy of Aloxi against moderately emetogenic chemotherapy treatment. The multicenter, randomized, double blind studies (called 99-03 and 99-04) enrolled 1,132 subjects and designed to compare the efficacy and safety profile of palonosetron with that of a comparator agent for prevention of CINV. Subjects in the 99-03 study were randomized to receive single intravenous doses of 0.25 mg palonosetron, 0.75 mg palonosetron, or 32 mg ondansetron 30 minutes prior to moderately-emetogenic chemotherapy. In study 99-04, subjects in the comparator arm received 100 mg dolasetron as the comparator agent.

Results showed that the complete response rate for subjects in the 0.25 mg palonosetron arm was significantly greater than the complete response rate among patients who received 32 mg ondansetron. During the first 24 hours following chemotherapy, also called the acute phase, 81.0% of the subjects treated with a single intravenous 0.25 mg dose of palonosetron achieved a complete response, compared to 68.6% of patients treated with 32 mg ondansetron. During the delayed phase, 74.1% of subjects treated with 0.25 mg palonosetron had a complete response compared to 55.1% of patients in the 32 mg ondansetron study arm. Results from study 99-03 were presented in an ASCO Integrated Education Session entitled "Pathogenesis-Based Treatment of Mucositis and Nausea and Vomiting". Results from the 99-04 trial were reported in June 2002 at the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer (MASCC) International Symposium.

A third double-blind, phase 3 trial (99-05) enrolled 667 subjects and compared single-dose IV ALOXI with single-dose IV ondansetron (study 3) given 30 minutes prior to highly emetogenic chemotherapy including cisplatin ¡Y 60 mg/m2, cyclophosphamide > 1500 mg/m2, and dacarbazine. Results showed that during the delayed phase 45.3% of subjects treated, with 0.25 mg palonosetron had a complete response compared to 38.9% of subjects in the 32 mg ondansetron trial arm. Additionally, 42.0% of the subjects given dexamethasone prior to chemotherapy and treated with a single intravenous 0.25 mg dose of palonosetron achieved a complete response during the delayed phase, compared to 28.6% of subjects treated with 32 mg ondansetron. Data showed that the median time to first emetic episode for subjects treated with palonosetron was more than 120 hours, compared to 42.7 hours for subjects treated with 32 mg ondansetron.

A double-blind, dose-ranging phase 2 study evaluated the efficacy of single-dose IV palonosetron from 0.3 to 90 μg/kg (equivalent to < 0.1 mg to 6 mg fixed dose) in 161 chemotherapy-naïve adult cancer patients receiving highly-emetogenic chemotherapy (either cisplatin ¡Y 70 mg/m2 or cyclophosphamide > 1100 mg/m2). Concomitant corticosteroids were not administered prophylactically. Results indicated that 0.25 mg is the lowest effective dose in preventing acute nausea and vomiting induced by highly emetogenic chemotherapy.

Side Effects
Adverse events associated with the use of Aloxi may include (but are not limited to) the following:
Headache
Diarrhea
Fatigue
Abdominal
Pain
Insomnia

Mechanism of Action
Palonosetron is a selective serotonin subtype 3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonist with a strong binding affinity. 5-HT3 receptors are located on the nerve terminals of the vagus in the periphery and centrally in the chemoreceptor trigger zone of the area postrema. Cancer chemotherapy is associated with nausea and vomiting when serotonin is released from the enterochromaffin cells of the small intestine activates 5-HT3 receptors located on vagal afferents and activates the vomiting reflex. Palonosetron may also block ion channels involved in ventricular polarization may prolong action potential duration. The effect of palonosetron on blood pressure, heart rate, and ECG parameters including QTc were comparable to ondansetron and dolasetron in clinical trials.

Additional Information
For additional information regarding Aloxi or Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, please contact: The Aloxi Web Site

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 详细处方信息以本药内容附件PDF文件(201151518482639.pdf)的“原文Priscribing Information”为准
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更新日期: 2013-11-14
附件:






201151518482639.pdf    

 
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